Every dollar spent on flood mitigation saves $4 in recovery costs. Cities around the U.S. are planning for these disasters although federal spending remains heavily weighted towards post-disaster services instead of prevention, as we see in this article from Governing.com.
After a devastating 1984 flood, Tulsa, OK established systems and procedures that reduced future flood damages. They
- Established a stormwater management utility
- Used nature-based solutions for flood control along a critical stream
- Established a stormwater utility fee for hard surfaces
- Used open areas for detention
- Removed structures in floodplains.
In 2013, Boulder fared better than other Colorado communities because they had tied drainage improvements to developments and established funding to buy at-risk properties.
Washington D.C. issued the nation’s first municipal environmental impact bonds. In North Carolina, Charlotte-Mecklenburg County uses storm water fees to relocate buildings and encourage people to move out of flood-prone areas.
Chris Nordstrom, PLA, ASLA
For the 14th consecutive month, the monthly global temperature record has been broken. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), June’s combined average temperature was 1.62 degrees above the 20th century average. Only two spots on the globe had lower than average temperatures; no land areas experienced record cold readings for the month. It has been 40 years since the planet averaged below normal temperatures.
Whether you feel climate change is man-made or just a natural cycle, there is little debate that it’s happening. The Michigan Department of Health and Human Services (MDHHS) and the Great Lakes Integrated Sciences Assessments Program (GLISA) report that average temperatures in Michigan have increased, with the increases most noticeable during the winter seasons. This summer’s drought aside, precipitation has also increased across most of lower Michigan, primarily during the winter and fall months. Michigan experienced an increase in annual precipitation of 4.5% during the 1981-2010 period, although there was significant variability across the state; southeast Michigan saw an increase of 9.5 percent, while the Upper Peninsula fell 2.8 percent. The average number of extreme weather events, where precipitation exceeded one inch in a 24 hour period, increased by over 13 percent.
These increases in precipitation pose serious problems for developed areas around the world. Extreme weather events can overwhelm stormwater systems, causing flooding, sewage overflows, and erosion-related damage. Cities with crumbling infrastructures are facing escalating costs and dwindling budgets as they attempt to find cost-effective solutions to addressing these challenges.
Might parks and open spaces compliment if not outright replace existing stormwater treatment systems and facilities? The Trust for Public Land (TPL) recently released a report presenting several case studies where park facilities were used as stormwater management facilities. In some cases, the parks spurred hundreds of millions of dollars in investment in the surrounding area. Closer to home, the University of Michigan’s School of Natural Resources launched a program to study the use of vacant lots in Detroit to create bioretention gardens help retain and clean stormwater.
At a time when park and municipal utility department find themselves fighting for precious funding, these innovative solutions could form the basis of a mutually beneficial partnership.
Posted in Municipal Management, Recreation planning
Tagged Carlisle/Wortman Associates, climate change, detention, global temperature, global warming, infrastructure, Michigan, planners, planning, retention, storm water, stormwater
Des Moines Area Metropolitan Planning Organization
In 2010 and 2011, HUD’s Office of Economic Resilience and its Sustainable Communities Initiative funded 30 projects to help regions and communities plan for and begin to implement green infrastructure projects. Their report offers excellent examples and is rich with links to the grantees’ work.
HUD spent $165 million in funding for sustainable communities regional planning grants and $70 million in community challenge planning grants for projects in corridors, neighborhoods, across cities and around transit stations. A number of the projects supplemented their budgets with Department of Transportation funds.
- Green infrastructure investments are most effective and beneficial when coordinated regionally.
- Gray infrastructure alone isn’t a solution. Even expanded capacity may not help with extreme weather events and natural disasters. It can, though, when combined with green infrastructure improvements.
- Green infrastructure investments provide corollary benefits. New parks and water features, trees and landscaping have a placemaking effect that can increase property values.
Among the more interesting projects:
- Michigan’s Tri-County Regional Planning Commission (Clinton, Eaton and Ingham counties) developed a regional plan that includes an advertising campaign, Pollution Isn’t Pretty.
- SEMCOG received $2.85 million to develop a regional plan for sustainable development for its region.
- Cincinnati will daylight a creek which for 100 years has been buried and channelized as a combined overflow sewer.
- Pittsburgh will naturalize space on its riverfront, restoring habitats and native plants along the shore.
- Jersey City will use green infrastructure to harvest stormwater.
- Columbia, TN used the Light Imprint tools created by New Urbanism’s Duany Plater-Zyberk.
- The convergence of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers made green infrastructure an important element in the St. Louis, MO region’s master plan. Their sustainable solutions toolkit is very useful.
- The Minneapolis-St. Paul region developed the concept of “Shared, stacked-function” green infrastructure, where the green infrastructure serves more than one parcel and provides additional community amenities.
Posted in Corridor planning, economic development, Master plans, Placemaking, Public engagement, Recreation planning
Tagged Carlisle/Wortman Associates, combined sewer, CSO, green infrastructure, Michigan, planning, storm water, stormwater